Future Indefinite (=Simple) Tense

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Future Simple has two different forms in English: will (устаревшая форма shall) and be going to.


will + verb

Be going to

am/is/are + going to + verb

You will help him later. (= you’ll)Will you help him later?You will not help him later.   (=won’t) You are going to meet Jane tonight. (= You’re going)Are you going to meet Jane tonight?You are not going to meet Jane tonight. (= You’re not going)

Will is used to express:

1.    On-the-spot decisions (спонтанные решения)
I’ll turn on the light.
I’ll close the window.
2.    Hopes, voluntary actions, offers, fears, promises, warnings, predictions, requests (просьба) (I hope…, I’m sure, I’m afraid, probably)

    I will send you the information when I get it.
•    I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.
•    Will you help me to move this heavy table?
•    Will you make a dinner?
•    I will not do your homework for you.
•    I won’t do all the housework myself!
•    I’m afraid I’ll be a bit late.
•    I am sure he will come.

•   A: I’m really hungry.
    B: I’ll make some sandwiches.
•  A: I’m so tired. I’m about to fall asleep.
    B: I’ll get you some coffee.
•  A: The phone is ringing.
   B: I’ll get it.

3.    Actions or predictions which may (or may not) happen in the future
She’ll probably buy a new house.
4.    Things we are not sure about or haven’t decided to do it yet.
She’ll probably be promoted.
5.    Actions which are out of control.
I will be 10 next year.

Be going to is used to express:

1. A plan
It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not. (намерение что-то сделать в будущем)
•    He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
•    She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.
•    A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
     B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.
•    I’m going to be an actor when I grow up.
•    Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.
•    They are going to drive all the way to Alaska.
•    Who are you going to invite to the party?
•    A: Who is going to make John’s birthday cake?
     B: Sue is going to make John’s birthday cake.
2. An intended action
She is going to visit her parents tomorrow.
3. Evidence that something will definitely happen in the near future
Ann is going to have a baby.      It’s going to rain.
4. Things we are sure about or we have already decided to do it
He’s going to be promoted. (Decision is ready).

Both will or be going to are used to express a prediction about the future:

(what might happen in the future). In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.
•    The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
•    The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.
•    John Smith will be the next President.
•    John Smith is going to be the next President.
•    The movie «Zenith» will win several Academy Awards.
•    The movie «Zenith» is going to win several Academy Awards.

Future Simple cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Present Simple is used instead.
•    When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct
•    When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
•    You will never help him.
•    Will you ever help him?
•    You are never going to meet Jane.
•    Are you ever going to meet Jane?
Present Simple can also have future meaning:
The plane reaches London at 9.00 (timetables, programmes)
Present Continuous can also have future meaning:
Sally is seeing her dentist this week. (appointment)

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